Die 10 aktuellsten Einträge aus Sicherheitsanforderungen

Auf dieser Seite finden Sie die letzten 10 Einträge, die ich im Bereich Sicherheitsanforderungen eingestellt habe.

Nennleistung

Nicht weiter ausgeführt ist in der Maschinenrichtlinie, was diese unter "Nennleistung" versteht. Allgemein wird darunter die vom Hersteller angegebene Leistung der betreffenden Maschine verstanden, für die diese ausgelegt / konstruiert ist. Das kann dabei die Leistung sein, die die Maschine abgeben kann oder auch die Leistung die die Maschine aufnehmen kann und zwar über ihre gesamte Lebensdauer. Hier gibt es augenscheinlich in der Fachwelt keine allgemeingültige Regelung. D.h. der Maschinenhersteller sollte deshalb angeben um welche "Nennleistung" es sich konkret bei seiner Angabe auf dem Typenschild handelt.

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Kennzeichnung beweglicher Maschinen

Bei Maschinen, die unter Anhang I Nr. 3 fallen, d. h. von denen Gefährdungen auf Grund Ihrer Beweglichkeit ausgehen, sind zusätzliche Angaben zu der allgemeinen Kennzeichnung nach Nr. 1.7.3 des Anhang I erforderlich:

Nach Anhang I, Nr. 3.6.2 sind folgende Angaben auf dem Typenschild deutlich lesbar und dauerhaft anzubringen:

  • die Nennleistung ausgedrückt in Kilowatt (kW),
  • die Masse in Kilogramm (kg) beim gängigsten Betriebszustand

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EU-Leitfaden "§ 268 Die wesentlichen Merkmale von Werkzeugen"

Nummer 1.7.4.2 Buchstabe n bezieht sich auf Betriebsanleitungen für Werkzeuge die Geräte sind, die die Maschine zum Ausführen einer Aufgabe verwendet und nicht in sich selbst Maschinen oder unvollständige Maschinen sind, wie Bohrer oder Fräser einfach Baggerlöffel (angetriebene Baggergreifer und Anbauten gelten als Bestandteil der Maschine oder auswechselbare Ausrüstungen und nicht als Werkzeuge), Schneidköpfe, Schleifscheiben, die nicht ständig an der Maschine befestigt sind und vom Benutzer ausgewechselt werden können. Derartige Werkzeuge gelten nicht als Teil der Maschine – siehe § 41: Anmerkungen zu Artikel 2 Buchstabe b –, allerdings ist der sichere Betrieb der Maschine häufig vom Einbau und der Verwendung geeigneter Werkzeuge abhängig. In der Anleitung müssen daher die Merkmale der Werkzeuge aufgeführt werden, die für eine sichere Benutzung von Bedeutung sind. Von besonderer Bedeutung ist dies bei schnell verfahrenden und mit hoher Drehzahl rotierenden Werkzeugen, um Risiken durch Bruch und herausgeschleuderte Bruchstücke von Werkzeugen oder durch Herausschleudern der Werkzeuge selbst zu vermeiden – siehe § 207 und § 208: Anmerkungen zu Nummer 1.3.2 und 1.3.3.

Zu den wesentlichen Merkmalen, die hier angegeben werden müssen, zählen beispielsweise:

  • die größten oder kleinsten Abmessungen und das Gewicht der Werkzeuge;

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EU-Guide "§ 268 The essential characteristics of tools"

Section 1.7.4.2 (n) deals with instructions relating to tools which are items that the machine uses to carry out a task, and are not in themselves machinery or partly completed machinery, such as drill or router bits, simple digging buckets (powered clamshell buckets and attachments are considered part of the machine or interchangeable equipment and not tools), cutting heads, sanding disks, that are not permanently fixed to the machinery and that may be changed by the user. Such tools are not considered as part of the machinery – see §41: comments on Article 2 (b) - however the safe use of the machinery frequently depends on the fitting and use of appropriate tools. The instructions must therefore specify the characteristics of the tools on which safe use depends. This is particularly important for fast moving or fast rotating tools, in order to avoid risks due to the break-up and ejection of fragments of tools or due to the ejection of the tools themselves – see §207 and §208: comments on sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.3.

The essential characteristics to be specified may include, for example:

  • − the maximum or minimum dimensions and mass of tools;

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EU-Guide "§ 290 Instructions"

(a) The instructions must give comprehensive information on the operation of the machine with respect to loading, use, adjustment and ranges of nozzles, checks, types of pesticides not to be used, features of the machinery, specific instructions. It must also give information on the techniques to be used to avoid spillage, the type of: containers (such as size, materials, design) that should be used; mixing equipment and how these should be cleaned and in particular the means of disposal of wash liquid and waste pesticide. The precautions to be taken in the transport of the equipment such how any pesticide is isolated so as to minimise the possibility of spillage and how, if relevant, boom sections etc., are to be purged of pesticides.

(b) The detail of the information required will depend on the type of machinery involved. The information should include the limits of wind speed it can be operated in, the size and location of areas it is unsuitable for use and basic information on when the pesticide can be used, with reference to the pesticide information supplied by its manufacture. The manufacturer can make a general reference to national or regional legislation for specific requirements with respect to wind speeds, restricted areas etc., which may vary both between member states and in some cases within them.

Information should also be given on the types of pesticide it is suitable for. Particular attention must be paid to the guidance on the set up of the machine and its adjustments to ensure the designed application control, and how this can be checked and if faulty revised. For a portable sprayer the information will involve the way the lance is operated. It should also give information on maintenance and replacement of the lance nozzle.


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EU-Guide "§289 Marking of nozzles, strainers and filters and of pesticide in use"

Nozzles – except those of pneumatic mist blowers –, strainers and filters fitted to the pesticide machinery or supplied as spares/consumables must be clearly marked or identified in order to have information about details of their type and size so the operator can ensure the correct type has been fitted. It is preferable to use a marking system that is easily understood, with the use of appropriate codes as required. Nozzles for pneumatic mist blowers that are not expected to need to be replaced or interchanged within the lifetime of the machine need not be so marked.

A “card holder” or similar must be fitted to the machine on which the details (name etc.) of the pesticide being used or contained in the machine can be shown. This will apply to most pesticide mobile machinery, but for smaller machines such as portable sprayers a card holder is not normally required, but it should be possible to record the content on the sprayer, such as a panel that can be written on.

The indication of the pesticide carried in the machine is mainly necessary in case of pesticides that are classified as hazardous substances and that are present in a relevant concentrated form. The transport of hazard substances on public roads is regulated in ADR225


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EU-Guide "§289 Marking of nozzles, strainers and filters and of pesticide in use"

Nozzles – except those of pneumatic mist blowers –, strainers and filters fitted to the pesticide machinery or supplied as spares/consumables must be clearly marked or identified in order to have information about details of their type and size so the operator can ensure the correct type has been fitted. It is preferable to use a marking system that is easily understood, with the use of appropriate codes as required. Nozzles for pneumatic mist blowers that are not expected to need to be replaced or interchanged within the lifetime of the machine need not be so marked.

A “card holder” or similar must be fitted to the machine on which the details (name etc.) of the pesticide being used or contained in the machine can be shown. This will apply to most pesticide mobile machinery, but for smaller machines such as portable sprayers a card holder is not normally required, but it should be possible to record the content on the sprayer, such as a panel that can be written on.

The indication of the pesticide carried in the machine is mainly necessary in case of pesticides that are classified as hazardous substances and that are present in a relevant concentrated form. The transport of hazard substances on public roads is regulated in ADR225


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EU-Guide "§288 Maintenance"

Cleaning

Rough surfaces and awkward recesses should be avoided.
Sprayers with liquid spray tank capacities above a specific size (e.g. about 300+ litres) must be equipped with a rinsing tank that complies with this module. These tanks are required to provide adequate clean water for internal cleaning of the sprayer and will depend on the volume of the pesticide tank and complexity of the equipment on the machine that needs to be cleaned. Note, water for the operator to use for their cleaning may be required as part of the compliance with EHSR 1.1.3 (see §178: comments) and should be provided by separate means.

Servicing

Filters and nozzles should be readily accessible for cleaning, replacement and maintenance. Critically the design should allow their replacement in the field as required without spillage and the risk of contamination, by means of isolation valves or other devices. Filters should be able to be cleaned without needing to empty the sprayer tank(s).


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EU-Guide "§287 Losses during stoppage"

The primary risk will be with those machines using liquid pesticides. Here the requirement set out in section 2.4.5.4 must be fulfilled by adequate design (e.g. design of the plumbing, anti-drip valves, nozzle shut-off valves, collectors), to ensure a minimum level of spray liquid losses from nozzles once the liquid supply has been turned off.

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EU-Guide "§286 Application of pesticides"

Application rate

The adjustment of the application rate should be located ergonomically adjacent to the operating position, firmly fixed and under all circumstances a steady reading should be possible.

Distribution, disposition and drift of pesticide

There are three major factors, for sprayer calibration: forward speed, swath width, and liquid flow rate.

Factors of design that can help control sprayer rate and its calibration include positioning, settings/adjustments and maintenance possibilities of nozzles and booms, the use of spray drift reduction technologies, depositional assistance e.g. air support, measurement devices etc.

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